Организация торгов Ethereum (ETH)

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Ethereum is a global, open-source platform for decentralized applications.

On Ethereum, you can write code that controls digital value, runs exactly as programmed, and is accessible anywhere in the world.

What Is Ethereum? Introduction To ETH

What is Ethereum?

Ethereum is an open software blockchain network originally designed by Vitalik Buterin, Gavin Wood, and Joseph Lubin. As a decentralized platform that supports smart contracts, the Ethereum Virtual Machine provides the backbone for a wide variety of distributed applications (dApps). Ether (ETH) is the cryptocurrency token that allows for transactions between participants in the Ethereum network, and it is the second-largest blockchain token by market capitalization after Bitcoin.

Introduction To Ethereum

When Bitcoin captured the world’s attention in the early 2020s, few imagined how revolutionary it actually was. Vitalik Buterin, Gavin Wood, and Joseph Lubin did, though, when they started work on The Ethereum Project in 2020.

Thinking beyond currencies, Ethereum was imagined as a decentralized blockchain-based platform that can host a variety of decentralized applications. In an increasingly cloud-based world, it’s an ideal solution that quickly gained popularity and support.

Bitcoin was targeted at consumers, but Ethereum was the first crypto project built with enterprise in mind. The Enterprise Ethereum Alliance helps forge B2B partnerships on the network with names like Samsung, Microsoft, Intel, J.P. Morgan, Cornell University, and MasterCard involved.

Ethereum’s launch changed the game and made blockchain and crypto legitimate disruptive technologies. It’s also consistently been one of the cryptos with the highest market caps. Before explaining why Ethereum is so revolutionary, let’s review the performance of Ethereum’s ETH crypto coin (also called Ether) on the market.

Breakdown of ETH Crypto Market Performance

The peak price so far of Ethereum ETH was $1,389.18 on January 14, 2020. Daily trading volume is approximately $1 billion, and it’s accepted by pretty much every exchange, ICO, and crypto platform in existence.

ETH’s summer 2020 crowdsale is one of the first and most successful ICOs of all time, raising $18,300,000 worth of BTC. It’s no longer the most successful ICO ever – that crown belongs to EOS, which raised over $4 billion, which, along with the majority of the top ICOs of all time started as dApps on the Ethereum Network.

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Approximately 61 million ETH were released at launch in 2020, and over 40 million have been mined since. It’s mined using a Proof of Work (PoW) algorithm, although this may change now that ASIC ETH mining rigs are in the mix. A Proof-of-Stake change has long been discussed.

ETH is divisible to 18 decimal places, and it’s necessary to pay for transactions on the Ethereum network. Gas transactions on Ethereum don’t actually use ETH (it’s done in the Ethereum Virtual Machine), but the ETH is used to pay the transaction fees. To simplify – every transaction has a gas cost, and gas has an ETH cost.

Third-party Ethereum-based tokens use several different technical standards, called Ethereum Request for Comments (ERC). ERC-20 is the most used token, and ERC-20 compliance ensures widespread token acceptance. Ether, ironically, isn’t ERC-20 compatible and uses Wrapped Ether (WETH) to facilitate exchanges.

Ethereum also support non-fungible tokens like CryptoKitties and Ethermon using the ERC-721 standard . This allows each token to have different values, versus typical crypto and fiat currencies that are interchangeable and equal.

Not only does Ethereum host other tokens like TRC, ZIL, and ICX, but it also has several hard forks. Ethereum hard forks include Ethereum Classic (ETC), EthereumFog (ETF), Ethereum Modification (EMO), EtherZero (ETZ), EtherInc (ETI), and EtherBTC (ETHB). is a great tool to trace ETH and other Ethereum-based tokens.

Ethereum Taps Blockchain’s Potential

As mentioned above, the biggest difference between Bitcoin and Ethereum is Bitcoin is an application of blockchain technology. On the other hand, Ethereum is a platform to host other blockchain-based apps. The cryptocurrency on Ethereum’s platform is used both to fuel transactions and as a tradeable currency to cash other tokens out to.

The secret sauce to Ethereum’s blockchain network is the smart contracts. These self-executing programs contain conditions that must be met before processing, which constitutes mining. Smart contracts are written in the Turing-complete Solidity language developed specifically for Ethereum.

By building a decentralized platform, Ethereum enables Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO) and decentralized applications (dApp). Because of this, it became a popular platform for other organizations to launch ICOs, even if only the alpha and/or beta networks would actually reside on the Ethereum network. Unfortunately, The DAO venture capital fund had $50M stolen in a hack in 2020 that led to the Ethereum Classic hard fork.

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) enables other programming languages to interact with Solidity smart contracts. It’s an ingenious system that seeming thought of everything. However, this smart contract network isn’t perfect.

Ethereum promises no downtime, but CryptoKitties took it down in late 2020, forcing both Ethereum and CryptoKitties to respond and stabilize the network before people started jumping ship. It’s advertised as secure, but several hacks have plagued the Ethereum network . It’s faster than Bitcoin, but not by much.

Of course, these growing pains affect every new organization, and no technology is ever perfect. The Ethereum Project has first-mover advantage in blockchain, so it has a target on its back from competitors like NEO and EOS (the latter started on Ethereum itself) . These newer projects resolve issues like bottlenecked processing speed on Ethereum.

Ethereum isn’t taking thing lying down. It’s constantly updating , and projects like Lightning and Plasma will help both Ethereum and other blockchains scale. And Ethereum is more than just one organization at this point – it’s an entire community of developers, designers, marketers, and more all working on an entire blockchain-based ecosystem.

Rise of Tokenized and Decentralized Applications

When hodlers of ETH discuss their gains, it can be a little deceiving. Sure – plenty of people made a lot of money on ETH itself, but that’s not all. Because it hosts a diverse ecosystem of dApps, many new projects on Ethereum use airdrops to launch.

ETH holders would often log into wallets to discover new, unheard of tokens, some worthless, some not.

Ethereum is built using a dual-layer blockchain. Smart contracts are stored on one, while the EVM runs on top to process transactions. The EVM layer lets developers create applications directly on the blockchain using any programming language. Of course, sidechains are a much more efficient way of doing this, as using a non-dependent chain drastically lowers processing times.

Blockchain development is a highly sought-after skill in today’s job marketplace, and Ethereum development in particular will be generating a lot of careers from young tech professionals. Here are a few of the dApps developed on Ethereum:

Ethlance – This Upwork for crypto connects freelancers with businesses without charging the steep fees that make Upwork a tough sell for experienced professionals.

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Aragon – Aragon is a platform that makes building and managing DAOs and dApps much easier.

Golem – The Airbnb of computing power lets you rent out access CPU (and eventually GPU and DRAM) functions to create crowdsourced supercomputers.

Idex – Exchanging Ethereum-based tokens is made easy with this decentralized crypto token exchange.

Like Android, Windows, and other platforms before it, Ethereum’s development community will only continue to grow and evolve over time, providing tools we always wanted and/or never knew we needed.

Ethereum (ETH) Summary

Ethereum is a revolutionary blockchain project that expands the usage of cryptocurrency technology. More than just a storage of value, Ethereum’s smart contract network changed the way we see crypto and enables decentralized development on the blockchain. Ethereum is one of the most valuable cryptos in the world, and its creators are now known in mainstream culture thanks to these key features.

  • Ethereum uses Ether, or ETH, to pay for transactions and store value. Other tokens can be created using a variety of tokenized standards.
  • Ethereum has enterprise partnerships in technology, finance, and more. These partnerships are key to sustaining development, mining, and usage.
  • Ethereum has competitors that fix many of the flaws it experienced by pioneering the industry. However, upgrades, updates, and new developments like Plasma and sharding keep Ethereum fresh.

With these pieces in place, Ethereum will be around for a long time. This isn’t to say it’s always guaranteed a spot in the crypto top 10. Competition is fierce in blockchain, but Ethereum’s strong technology and team will keep it running long after you’ve died.


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Ethereum (ETH) is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine (Ethereum VM), the Ethereum Virtual Machine (VM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called «ether», which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [1] «Gas», an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.


As an open source platform, Ethereum greatly simplifies the implementation of blockchain technology, which explains the interest of not only new startups, but also major SOFTWARE developers, such as Microsoft, IBM and Acronis. Also conventional companies such as VTB banks, Sberbank, Lufthansa and S7 airlines, as well as international charitable organizations showed interest in the platform.

Ethereum was proposed in late 2020 by Vitalik Buterin, a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2020. The system went live on 30 July 2020, with 11.9 million eth coins «premined» for the crowdsale. This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply.

In 2020, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains — the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [2]

History [ edit ]

Origin [ edit ]

Ethereum was initially described in Ethereum white paper by Vitalik Buterin, a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2020 with a goal of building decentralized applications. Buterin had argued that Bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. Failing to gain agreement, he proposed development of a new platform with a more general scripting language.

At the time of public announcement in January 2020, the core Ethereum team was Vitalik Buterin, Mihai Alisie, Anthony Di Iorio, and Charles Hoskinson. [3] Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2020 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse). Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during July–August 2020, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin. While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability.

Milestones [ edit ]

Several codenamed prototypes of the Ethereum platform were developed by the Foundation, as part of their Proof-of-Concept series, prior to the official launch of the Frontier network.

«Olympic» was the last of these prototypes, and public beta pre-release. The Olympic network provided users with a bug bounty of 25,000 ether for stress testing the limits of the Ethereum blockchain.

«Frontier» marked the tentative experimental release of the Ethereum platform in July 2020. [4]

Since the initial launch, Ethereum has undergone several planned protocol upgrades called milestones, which are important changes affecting the underlying functionality and/or incentive structures of the platform.

«Homestead» is the current milestone, and is considered stable. It includes improvements to transaction processing, gas pricing, and security.

There are at least two other protocol upgrades planned in the future:

«Metropolis» is intended to reduce the complexity of the EVM and provide more flexibility for smart contract developers. Metropolis also adds supports for zkSnarks (from Zcash); with the first zksnarks transaction occurring on testnet on September 19, 2020.

Ethereum mining [ edit ]

«Serenity» should include a fundamental change to Ethereum’s consensus algorithm to enable a basic transition from hardware mining (proof-of-work) to virtual mining (proof-of-stake). Improvements to scalability, specifically sharding, are also said to be a key objective on the development roadmap. [5]

Version Code name Release date
o|0 Olympic May, 2020
o|1 Frontier 30 July 2020
o|2 Homestead 14 March 2020
c|3 Metropolis (vByzantium) 16 October 2020
p|3.5 Metropolis (vConstantinople) TBA
p|4 Serenity TBA
Version |l |show=011101

How to buy Ethereum [ edit ]

Ethereum was originally described in one of Buterin’s publications at the end of 2020. In April 2020, Ethereum was formally described by Gavin wood in the so-called «yellow book». Around the same time, Ethereum was informally described as a «next generation Bitcoin» (or «Bitcoin 2.0») platform.

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In the second half of 2020 fund raising for development started through crowdfunding. Ethereum was the first cryptocurrency to use an Initial Coin Offering for their crowd funding. The Ethereum presale took place from Tuesday, 22 July 2020 to Tuesday, 2 September 2020, a total of 42 days. 31,500 bitcoins or equivalently $18.4 million USD was raised. [6] After that, Ethereum drew the attention of many banks as a testing platform for studying smart contracts and bonds. The Ethereum blockchain platform was launched on the 30th of July 2020.

On March 14, 2020, Ethereum released an early alpha version of Frontier in which developers did not guarantee security. The new version of the Protocol is called Homestead and also refers to the early, but already stable version.

Securing the network with hashing is assumed only at the initial stage. In the future Ethereum plans to complete the transition to the method of protection proof-of-stake with a hybrid model at the intermediate stage. Despite this, there is protection against the creation of ASIC due to the high requirements for video memory GPU, which is constantly growing (2.04 GB in July 2020).

Ethereum price [ edit ]

The price of ETH token or Ether is always chaining, however, BitcoinWiki gives you a chance to see the prices online on Coin360 widget.

The DAO and the branch of the block chain [ edit ]

In June 2020, an error was detected in the software code of the DAO, a platform for Autonomous investment capital management. On June 16, this vulnerability allowed unknown people to move about one-third of the ether available in The DAO (at that time in the amount of 50 million US dollars) to one of ChildDAO, which was controlled only by the attacking party. However, due to the peculiarities of the implementation of the DAO, these funds were not available for withdrawal within a month.

The Ethereum community discussed whether to return the ether to investors and in what way to implement the return, and the developers of the DAO from Germany tried to counter attack the hacker, since the decentralized nature of the DAO and Ethereum means the absence of a Central body that could take a quick action and require user consensus. After a few weeks of discussion, on July 20, 2020, a hard fork was produced in the Ethereum blockchain, to reverse the hacking and return to investors the funds stolen from the DAO. This was the first branch of the chain of blocks to return stolen funds to investors.

As a result of rejection of transaction history rollback and rule changes by a part of the community, Ethereum Classic was formed, which continues to work as a project «the DAO».

Hard Forks [ edit ]

After the hard fork related to The DAO, Ethereum subsequently forked twice in the fourth quarter of 2020 to deal with other attacks. By the end of November 2020, Ethereum had increased its DDoS protection, de-bloated the blockchain, and thwarted further spam attacks by hackers.

Architecture [ edit ]

Ether [ edit ]

The value token of the Ethereum blockchain is called ether. It is listed under the code ETH and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges. It is also used to pay for transaction fees and computational services on the Ethereum network.

Tokens can be volatile per circumstances, such as ether’s plunge from $21.50 to $8 when The DAO was hacked on 17 June 2020. As of June 2020, the value of ether had risen to more than $400, a 5,000% rise since the beginning of the year. [7]

Price volatility on any single exchange can exceed the volatility on Ether token prices more generally. A «flash crash» triggered by a large sell order on one exchange briefly dropped the price on that exchange to $0.10 as every offer to buy was absorbed, after which the price quickly recovered to more than $300.

ERC20 [ edit ]

The ERC-20 standard protocol is a technical standard for smart contracts on Ethereum. It defines a set of rules to be followed in the creation of new tokens on the blockchain, allowing for exchanges and wallets to better (more seamlessly) integrate new tokens that follow the standard. Most major tokens on the Ethereum blockchain are ERC-20 compliant. [8]

Ethereum Virtual Machine [ edit ]

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) [9] is the runtime environment for smart contracts in Ethereum. The formal definition of the EVM is specified in the Ethereum Yellow Paper, original version by Gavin Wood. It is sandboxed and also completely isolated from the network, filesystem or other processes of the host computer system. Every Ethereum node in the network runs an EVM implementation and executes the same instructions. Ethereum Virtual Machines have been implemented in C++, Go, Haskell, Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Rust, and WebAssembly (currently under development).

Ethereum Smart contracts [ edit ]

Smart contracts are deterministic exchange mechanisms controlled by digital means that can carry out the direct transaction of value between untrusted agents. They can be used to facilitate, verify, and enforce the negotiation or performance of procedural instructions and potentially circumvent censorship, collusion, and counter-party risk. In Ethereum, smart contracts are treated as autonomous scripts or stateful decentralized applications that are stored in the Ethereum blockchain for later execution by the EVM. Instructions embedded in Ethereum contracts are paid for in ether (or more technically «gas») and can be implemented in a variety of Turing complete scripting languages.

Contracts on the public blockchain [ edit ]

As the contracts can be public, it opens up the possibility to prove functionality, e.g. self-contained provably fair casinos.

One issue related to using smart contracts on a public blockchain is that bugs, including security holes, are visible to all but cannot be fixed quickly. [10] One example of this is the 17 June 2020 attack on The DAO, which could not be quickly stopped or reversed.

There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.

Programming languages [ edit ]

Smart contracts are high-level programming abstractions that are compiled down to EVM bytecode and deployed to the Ethereum blockchain for execution. They can be written in Solidity (a language library with similarities to C and JavaScript), Serpent (similar to Python), LLL (a low-level Lisp-like language), and Mutan (Go-based, but deprecated). There is also a research-oriented language under development called Viper (a strongly-typed Python-derived decidable language).

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Performance [ edit ]

In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has trade-offs. [11] The downside is that performance issues arise in that every node is calculating all the smart contracts in real time, resulting in lower speeds. Ethereum engineers have been working on sharding the calculations, but no solution had been detailed by early 2020. As of January 2020, the Ethereum protocol could process 25 transactions per second. [11] In September 2020, Buterin presented proposals to increase scalability. Buterin and Joseph Poon (a co-author of Bitcoin’s lightning network whitepaper) announced in 2020 their plan to launch a scaling solution called Plasma which creates «child» blockchains to the «main» parent blockchain. [12] The plasma project is not without skeptics, specifically Vlad Zamfir (Ethereum’s lead researcher on proof of stake) has publicly questioned the plasma project’s viability.

Ether supply increase rate [ edit ]

The supply of Ether was projected to increase by 14.75% in 2020, with an algorithm in place to gradually decline to 1.59% by 2065. However, a new implementation of Ethereum named «Casper» based on proof-of-stake rather than proof-of-work is expected to reduce the inflation rate to between 0.5% to 2%.

Proposed uses [ edit ]

Many uses have been proposed for Ethereum platform, including ones that are impossible or unfeasible. Use case proposals have included finance, the internet-of-things, farm-to-table produce, electricity sourcing and pricing, and sports betting. Ethereum is (as of 2020) the leading blockchain platform for initial coin offering projects, with over 50% market share. [13]

Ecosystem [ edit ]

The projects listed in this section are not exhaustive and may be outdated.

Ethereum wallet [ edit ]

Decentralized applications [ edit ]

  • Digital signatures that ensure authenticity and proof of existence of documents: the Luxembourg Stock Exchange has developed such a system [14]
  • Slock.It is developing smart locks
  • Digital tokens pegged to fiat currencies: Decentralized Capital. Spanish bank Santander is also involved in such a project
  • Digital tokens pegged to gold: Digix
  • Improved digital rights management for music: Imogen Heap used the technology
  • Platforms for prediction markets: Augur, GnosisStox
  • Platforms for crowdfunding: the DAO
  • Social media platforms with economic incentives: Backfeed,Akasha
  • Decentralized marketplaces: FreeMyVunk,, Etheropt,, TransActive Grid
  • Remittance: Everex
  • Online gambling: Etheroll
  • Electric car charging management: RWE
  • Secure identity systems for the Internet: uPort
  • Labour economics: Blocklancer, [15]Ethlance

Enterprise software [ edit ]

Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies. Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase, Deloitte, R3, Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) [ edit ]

In March 2020, various blockchain start-ups, research groups, and Fortune 500 companies announced the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) with 30 founding members. [16]

By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise members—including ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University’s research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J.P. Morgan, Cooley LLP, Merck KGaA, Deloitte, Accenture, Banco Santander, BNY Mellon, ING Group, and National Bank of Canada.

The purpose of the EEA is to coordinate the engineering of an open-source reference standard and private «permissioned» version of the Ethereum blockchain that can address the common interests of enterprises in banking, management, consulting, automotive, pharmaceutical, health, technology, mobile, entertainment, and other industries, while working with developers from the Ethereum ecosystem. Certain members of the alliance have also indicated a desire to investigate and collaborate on hybrid architectures to potentially anchor private blockchains to the public Ethereum blockchain in the future, although concerns remain over the security, compliance, and regulations involved in bridging such permissioned and «permissionless» blockchains.

By July 2020, there were over 150 members in the alliance, including recent additions MasterCard, Cisco Systems, and Scotiabank. [17] (Mastercard wanted their name excluded from the press release. [18] )

Permissioned ledgers [ edit ]

Ethereum-based permissioned blockchain variants are used and being investigated for various projects.

  • J.P. Morgan Chase is developing a permissioned-variant of Ethereum blockchain dubbed «Quorum.» It’s designed to toe the line between private and public in the realm of shuffling derivatives and payments. The idea is to satisfy regulators who need seamless access to financial goings-on, while protecting the privacy of parties that don’t wish to reveal their identities nor the details of their transactions to the general public.
  • Royal Bank of Scotland has announced that it has built a Clearing and Settlement Mechanism (CSM) based on the Ethereum distributed ledger and smart contract platform. [19]

Economic sense [ edit ]

Ethereum technology makes it possible to register any transactions with any assets on the basis of a distributed base of contracts such as blockchain, without resorting to traditional legal procedures. This possibility is competitive in relation to the existing system of registration of transactions. According to the Economist, the technology of «smart contracts» marks a new era in financial technology.

Bacchanalia technologies can be successfully combined with the remote banking services of the type provided through SMS messages. Due to its low cost, this opportunity is particularly attractive for developing countries, according to The Economist.

Software implementation [ edit ]

Smart contracts in Ethereum are presented in the form of classes that can be implemented in various languages, including visual programming and compiled to bytecode for a virtual machine Ethereum (Ethereum Virtual Machine, EVM) before sending it to the blockchain. The state change of the virtual machine can be recorded in the full Turing scripting language.

Unlike the scripting language in the bitcoin Protocol, EVMS support loops, so the platform uses a mechanism called gas to limit contracts that can take a long time to execute.

Academic and Professional Reception [ edit ]

Dan Boneh of Stanford and Vipul Goyal of Carnegie Mellon told CNBC that some of their respective students are starting their own cryptocurrency projects. Cornell University, UC Berkeley, and Technion – Israel Institute of Technology formed the Initiative for Cryptocurrencies and Contracts (aka IC3) and that entity joined the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance.

Criticisms [ edit ]

Criminal use [ edit ]

A finance blogger on FT Alphaville has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud. The article was based on a paper from the University of Cagliari, which placed the number of Ethereum smart contracts which facilitate Ponzi schemes at nearly 10% of 1384 smart contracts examined. However, it also estimated that only 0.05% of the transactions on the network were related to such contracts.

Speculative bubble [ edit ]

CBS noted in 2020 that price hikes in Ethereum, (as well as Litecoin and Bitcoin), are creating most of the excitement, rather than technology.

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